The western terminus of the Mosul-Haifa pipeline is seen at Haifa’s harbor in 1938.

A pipeline spanning 590 miles from Kirkuk, Iraq, to Haifa begins operating to carry oil from the Mosul fields to the Mediterranean Sea. Crude oil takes about 10 days to travel the full route through the 12-inch-diameter pipe, then is refined and stored in Haifa until it can be shipped to Europe. The pipeline remains in operation until Israel’s independence in 1948.

Items are provided by the Center for Israel Education (, where you can find more details.